Barrow, known officially as Utqiaġvik, is the 11th northernmost public community in the world and the northern most city in the United States. About 60 percent of the 4,500 residents are Iñupiat, an indigenous Inuit ethnic group. Utqiaġvik, like most communities in Alaska, looks temporary, like a pioneer settlement. It is not. Barrow is among the oldest permanent settlements in the United States. Hundreds of years before European explorers showed up, Utqiaġvik, was more or less where it is now, a natural hunting place at the base of a peninsula that pokes out into the Beaufort Sea. Yankee whalers sailed here, learning about the bowhead whale from Iñupiat hunters. Later, the military came, setting up a radar station; a science center was founded in 1947.